For the majority of people, even inexperienced in viticulture, it is obvious that the time of ripening of grapes plays a decisive role when choosing one or another variety when growing in most regions of Russia. Only southerners can afford to choose between early, middle or late varieties, for the rest it is very important that the grapes have time to ripen before the onset of cold and rainy weather. Otherwise there is no special meaning in its cultivation, except for purely decorative purposes.
In addition to the ripening of the grapes themselves, no less important is the early and full ripening of the vine. This circumstance can guarantee a good hibernation of the bush and therefore plays no less important role than the winter hardiness of the variety itself.
What affects the ripening time
Early varieties of grapes are called all varieties that have a growing season of four months or less. Or, in other words, the period from the beginning of the life of the buds on the shoots to the dyeing of the berries on the bushes is no more than 120 days.
True, in grapes all early varieties are divided, in turn, into three groups:
- Ultra early (ripening period 80-100 days);
- Very early (vegetation period of 100-110 days);
- Just early (ripen about 110-120 days).
It is also necessary to understand that for the ripening of grapes, besides the number of days that have passed since the start of bud break, other factors play a significant role.
Among them, the main place is occupied by the heat that grape bushes can receive during the summer. There is even a special indicator for calculating heat, which is called the sum of active temperatures (or CAT). This indicator can be calculated by adding all the air temperatures for the period when the average daily temperatures do not fall below + 10 ° C.
In order for ripe ultra-early grape varieties to ripen, the sum of active temperatures must be between 1,800 and 2,000 °. For ripening very early varieties need from 2000 to 2200 °, and, finally, the usual early grapes will need 2200-2400 ° at least.Comment! On the territory of most regions of central Russia, SAT does not exceed 2400 ° on average over the summer.
Given these numbers, middle-line gardeners have to rely on growing only early grape varieties in their plots. Although some tricks can help raise the SAT by 200-300 ° per season.
- The use of covering structures of film or nonwoven material;
- Planting vines at the southern heated walls of houses and other buildings;
But in addition to heat, the aging of grapes is affected by:
- The possibility of returning spring frosts;
- Provision of vines with moisture;
- Mechanical composition and fertilization of the soil;
- The strength and direction of the prevailing winds.
Each grape variety has one or another measure of resistance to each of these factors. For example, Sphinx and Victor, having approximately the same ripening period (110-115 days), can start fruiting at completely different periods. Since the Sphinx buds bloom very late and the likelihood of falling under spring frosts is minimal. And Victor starts budding very early, and the first shoots can be damaged by frosts, and after the restoration of the shoots the maturation period naturally drags on.
Therefore, in different conditions, one or another variety may show itself differently. It is for this very reason that there are no definite leaders in early ripening. The earliest grapes in some conditions can ripen 2-3 weeks later in other conditions.Tip! The ripening period also depends on the load of the bushes in clusters.
Therefore, if you want to get first of all super-early grapes, then you must consciously underload the bushes with a crop.
In addition, the very concept of ripeness in relation to grapes is very relative. Generally, grapes are considered mature, which is stained with a shade that is appropriate for the variety, has become more or less soft, elastic and has gained some sugar content. But some grape varieties, including early ones, after dyeing, need to be hung on the vines from several weeks to a month to get a real rich taste.
In view of the foregoing, super early grape varieties can ripen from the first half of July (in the southern regions) to the beginning of August (in the middle lane). Very early varieties ripen mainly from the end of July to the tenth of August. The ripening period of the other early varieties includes the whole of August until the beginning of September.
In the middle lane, it is desirable in September to take off the entire crop from all, even later varieties, except technical ones. The fact is that shoots often cannot fully mature (woody) while clusters are still hanging on them. And if the shoots do not have time to ripen, then they can be damaged by the easiest frosts even under shelters.
Reasons for growing early ripe varieties
In addition to the main reason related to the elementary maturity of berries and shoots, there are several other reasons why early grapes are preferred to be grown in many southern regions of Russia.
- Firstly, it may be more effective, since the harvest in the earliest terms may not have to deal with most fungal diseases, which are usually activated at the end of summer and autumn.
- Secondly, it turns out to be cost effective. After all, the early harvest of grapes is in higher demand in the market and has, accordingly, a much higher price.
- Finally, even in the middle of summer, southerners begin to yearn for the grape taste, which they can fully provide for several bushes of grapes ripening in the earliest terms.
Ultra early ripening
The unique varieties and hybrid forms of grapes described below manage to ripen on average less than 100 days from the start of bud break. Among them are different in color and size of the fruit, but most have good resistance to the main problems of growing grapes. Below is a brief description of the varieties with the most important characteristics that will determine how a particular grape variety is right for you and your conditions.
Light in color
In this category, there are most varieties and hybrid forms, but only the most popular and resistant to diseases will be discussed.
This variety of Pavlovsky selection, fully justifying its name, despite the relative youth, is one of the most popular early grape varieties. On most sites, he is one of the first. Combining the large size of the berries with their beauty and taste, it is also distinguished by the high marketability of relatively large bunches (400-800 g) and their transportability. Shoots also have time to mature well. In addition, its resistance to fungal diseases is beyond praise, and its frost resistance reaches -24 ° C.
Very easy to maintain and stable in fruiting hybrid form from Hungary. Berries with strong nutmeg are pleasant to the taste, they are not subject to cracking, and the clusters remain for a long time on the bushes. Growth in the vine rather weak, but does not require staking and regulation. It matures well, cuttings rooted perfectly. The size of the berries can be too small for the table variety, but it is one of the first to keep up and forgives many of the errors in the care. The female type of flower can be considered a disadvantage, but it is pollinated perfectly with any number of growing grapes. It is resistant to diseases and makes frosts down to -26 ° С, it is recommended for quite harsh conditions.
Another of the earliest members of the grape family. The variety is quite old, so apart from super early ripening, it is not particularly famous for anything. The yield is average and highly dependent on the conditions of detention. The bush is a vigorous, small clusters, sugar berries accumulate a little (15-16), but the acidity is minimal (5-6 g / l). Disease resistance is average.
In recent years, one of the most popular grape varieties, thanks to record early ripeness, harmonious taste with a light nutmeg aroma and good yield. Clusters are medium in size and density, berries gain sugar up to 20 Brix. Transportability and safety are good. Disease resistance is medium.
Also very valuable and popular hybrid form of grapes. It matures only a week later than Harold, but it is distinguished by its high taste, which the tasters rated at 8.9 points. Berries and brushes are large, have a high presentation and excellent transportability. Bushes vigorous, shoots ripen well, flowers bisexual. Disease resistance is at a good level, frost resistance is up to -25 ° C.
Very interesting and disease-resistant ultra-early grape variety from Latvia. Not very famous, but very promising variety for growing in the middle lane. According to most indicators, it comes out in middling - by the size of berries, clusters, the strength of growth of bushes and yield. But the sugar content manages to dial up to 21 Brix, and the vine matures well. Flowers bisexual, takes out to -23 ° C frost.
Not applying for record-breaking yields, but reliable and disease-resistant superearly variety. The taste is simple, but the berries are long preserved on the bushes. The color of the berries is not particularly attractive for the market (white-green), but it can withstand temperatures down to -25 ° C.
One of the most beautiful and attractive in color are pink grape varieties, among which you can also find several representatives of the ultra early group.
By virtue of its relative novelty or even for some reason, this hybrid form is not particularly popular among growers. Of course, the bushes have significant growth force, and it has to be constantly cut and rationed. But it ripens in the earliest terms, after 95 days, the berries and brushes are rather large and very beautiful, without a pea. Well gain sugar content to 22%. Shoots ripen early and throughout the length, which is very nice. The cuttings root well, and the grapes withstand temperatures down to -24 ° C. Disease resistance is not fully understood, treatments are naturally needed, but due to the early ripening periods, the main struggle can be postponed until the moment after harvesting the entire crop. All this proves the promise of Eva for growing in the middle lane.
The superearly hybrid form with the original form of berries and clusters, received from one of their parents - Rizamata. Shrubs have a great growth force, the vine ripens along its entire length, cuttings root by 90-95%. The berries are not only beautiful, but also very tasty, with dense crispy flesh and a good accumulation of sugar. To obtain good yields, normalization is required, characterized by a higher average resistance to diseases.
There are not so many high-quality dark-stained supergrown grape varieties.
Beauty of Nikopol
It is considered one of the best grapes with ultra early ripening berries. Very productive and powerful grapes, bunches and berries have an excellent presentation and harmonious taste. The disadvantage is the relative instability to mildew, which can be corrected by spraying the bushes after the return of the crop.
The video below allows you to get an idea about this variety, as well as about the super early seed rape variety Veles.
Upper Red Nutmeg
Curious superearly form of grapes from Moldova. The berries are very similar in shape to the Cardinal variety, but smaller in size. It has a peculiarity: the older the bush, the larger the clusters and berries in them become. When ripe, the berries change color from red to almost purple.
Anniversary of Kherson summer resident
A rather new hybrid form of grapes from Ukraine is already very popular due to its ultrahardness, the pleasant taste of berries with nutmeg notes, their attractive appearance and the rather high winter hardiness of bushes. The berries are large pink in color, in the sun they acquire an additional dark "tan".
Another popular ultra early hybrid form with early and complete maturation of all shoots. Bushes differ in strength and yield. The elongated berries are able to persist on the vine for several months. Disease resistance average - requires mandatory treatments.
A completely new hybrid form of grapes, the fruits of which have an original diamond shape. The taste of the berries is also unusual, it contains some fruit notes. Ripens one of the first, but disease resistance has not yet been fully studied.
Among the seedless grape varieties, there are also superearly in ripening.
Already one name of this variety eloquently testifies to its main characteristics. Harvest can begin to collect in 80-85 days after the start of the growing season. This raiser is quite enough CAT about 1800 ° for full maturity. The berries have a delicious, crunchy flesh with a thin skin, they can be used for drying. Yields and disease resistance are average. But shoots ripen well.
It is considered the best seedless variety for northern viticulture, as it withstands temperatures down to -32 ° -34 ° С. Ripens one of the first. Clusters and small-sized berries, pinkish with a pleasant taste. The yield is average, but you have to pay for frost resistance and precocity.
Very early and early ripening
There are quite a few grape varieties belonging to this group. Some of them were developed quite a long time ago, and new hybrid forms with early ripening periods are popular. Listed below are early table grapes (ripening periods from 100 to 120 days), which are at least moderately resistant to major diseases and are popular among gardeners.
- Nadezhda Aksayskaya;
- Gingerbread Man;
- Amethyst Novocherkassk;
- Gift Nesvetaya;
- Cardinal Suite;
- The memory of the teacher;
In this category there are quite a few interesting raisers, the most popular of which are the following:
- Kishmish 342 or Hungarian
- Rusball improved
- Russian korinka
- Relines pink cides
It is worth noting the so-called technical or wine grapes with early ripening. Among them, the Hungarian variety Crystal stands out, which is characterized by high yields, early ripeness, winter hardiness and quite harmonious taste of berries, which allows some to rank it among the universal grape varieties.
Among other early maturing technical varieties can be mentioned:
- Lando Noir
- Kay Gray
It should be noted that since most of them are distinguished by a rather high winter-hardiness, many of them can be grown in a non-roofing culture, on arches or arbors.
Among the most sustainable early non-roof grape varieties can also be noted:
- Pineapple early
- Mystery of Sharov
Winter hardiness of most of these varieties is at the level of -28 ° -32 ° C, so you can try to grow them as uncovered, even in central Russia.
As it became obvious, there are a lot of early grape varieties, so you can easily choose suitable grapes to your taste, and focusing on your specific conditions on the site.